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web application in SharePoint

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web application in SharePoint

A web application in SharePoint is any individual IIS website created to access and use SharePoint Server technologies and services. Each web application has its own domain name and use zones to contain and apply different access and policy rules for different sets of users. This brings benefits while managing large numbers of SharePoint users who need to access the same site but view and interact with different levels of content.

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web application in SharePoint

Planning for web applications should center on the need to either share or isolate specific web content. For instance, different content can be presented for authenticated vs anonymous users or information can be contained so that internal employees, customers, and partners all access different types of web content. Policies for a web application let you set security and permissions at the level of the web application. You can set policies in Active Directory Domain Services users and user groups but not in SharePoint groups. Best practice suggests using these features to manage large numbers of users in user groups.

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Once you create web application you will find one IIS website and one application pool under IIS Manager, as mentioned earlier web application is an iis website.

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web application content database “WSS_Content” will be created under SQL database.

content database in sharepoint
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Default resource throttling settings for web application is as below when you select “web application” and click on “resource throttling”

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List View ThresholdSpecify the maximum number of items that a database operation can involve at one time. Operations that exceed this limit are prohibiteddefault 5000,limit is 10000
List View Threshold for Auditors and AdministratorsSpecify the maximum number of items that an object model database query can involve at one time for users to whom you grant sufficient permissions through Security Policy20000
List View Lookup ThresholdSpecify the maximum number of Lookup, Person/Group, or workflow status fields that a database query can involve at one time12
List Unique Permissions ThresholdSpecify the maximum number of unique permissions that a list can have at one time.50000
Change LogSpecify how long entries are kept in the change log.120

below screenshot is the default after creation of web application

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Click on the ribbon, select “Authentication Providers” to see authentication provider. The option “Self-service Site Creation” allows “Users can create their own Site Collections”. Click on “Permission Policy” to see default permission policy level, also can “Add permission policy level”. Click on “User Policy” to apply permission policy for web application.

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click on the link to see Software boundaries and limits for SharePoint Server 2016.

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cloud computing services

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cloud computing services

What is cloud computing ? Cloud computing or cloud computing services is the delivery of computing services (servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, intelligence) over Internet (“the cloud”) to offer faster innovation, flexible resources and economies of scale. You typically pay only for cloud services you use, helping lower your operating costs, run your infrastructure more efficiently and scale as your business needs change.

advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing

Lets discuss about what are advantages of cloud computing :

Cost : Eliminates Capital expense of buying hardware and software and setting up and running on-site data centers—the racks of servers, the round-the-clock electricity for power and cooling, the IT experts for managing the infrastructure.

Speed : Computing services are provided self service and on demand, so even vast amounts of computing resources can be provisioned in minutes, providing businesses a lot of flexibility and taking the pressure off capacity planning.

Global Scale : Another benefits  include ability to scale elastically means delivering right amount of IT resources (computing power, storage, bandwidth) during need and from the right geographic location.

Productivity : Eliminates many tasks like “racking and stacking”—hardware set up, software patching and other time-consuming IT management chores, which leads IT teams to spend time on achieving more important business goals.

Performance : Cloud computing services run on a worldwide network of secure data centers, which are regularly upgraded to the latest generation of fast and efficient computing hardware. This add several benefits over a single corporate data center, including reduced network latency for applications and greater economies of scale.

Security : Many cloud providers offer a broad set of policies, technologies and controls that strengthen your security posture overall, helping protect your data, apps and infrastructure from potential threats.

disadvantages of cloud computing includes as below

Vendor Lock-In : Vendor lock-in is a disadvantage of cloud computing. Differences between vendor platforms may create difficulties in migrating from one cloud platform to another, which could equate to additional costs and configuration complexities. Gaps or compromises made during a migration could also expose your data to additional security and privacy vulnerabilities.

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Types of cloud computing

Not all clouds are the same and not one type of cloud computing is right for everyone. Several different models, types and services have evolved to help offer the right solution for your needs. There are 3 types of cloud computing deployments: public, private and hybrid. First, you need to determine the type of cloud deployment or cloud computing architecture, that your cloud services will be implemented on. There are three different ways to deploy cloud services: on a public cloud, private cloud or hybrid cloud.

services of cloud computing

services of cloud computing fall into four broad categories: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), serverless and software as a service (SaaS). We can say these as cloud computing stack because they build on top of one another.

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) : The most basic category of cloud computing services. With IaaS, you rent IT infrastructure—servers and virtual machines (VMs), storage, networks, operating systems—from a cloud provider on a pay-as-you-go basis. To learn more, see What is IaaS?

Platform as a service (PaaS) : Platform as a service refers to cloud computing services that supply an on-demand environment for developing, testing, delivering and managing software applications. PaaS is designed to make it easier for developers to quickly create web or mobile apps, without worrying about setting up or managing the underlying infrastructure of servers, storage, network and databases needed for development. To learn more, see What is PaaS?

Serverless computing : Overlapping with PaaS, serverless computing focuses on building app functionality without spending time continually managing the servers and infrastructure required to do so. The cloud provider handles the setup, capacity planning and server management for you. Serverless architectures are highly scalable and event-driven, only using resources when a specific function or trigger occurs.

Software as a service (SaaS) : Software as a service is a method for delivering software applications over the Internet, on demand and typically on a subscription basis. With SaaS, cloud providers host and manage the software application and underlying infrastructure and handle any maintenance, like software upgrades and security patching. Users connect to the application over the Internet, usually with a web browser on their phone, tablet or PC. To learn more, see What is SaaS?

How cloud computing works

While cloud computing services all work a little differently, many provide a friendly, browser-based dashboard that makes it easier for IT professionals and developers to order resources and manage their accounts. Some cloud computing services are also designed to work with REST APIs and a command-line interface, giving developers multiple options.

use of cloud computing in business

we use an online service to send email, edit documents, watch movies or TV, listen to music, play games or store pictures and other files and cloud computing is used behind the scenes.

below are examples of what is possible today with cloud services from a cloud provider.

Create new apps and services : Quickly build, deploy and scale applications (web, mobile and API) on any platform. Access resources you need to help meet performance, security and compliance requirements.

Test and build applications : Reduce application development cost and time by using cloud infrastructures that can easily be scaled up or down.

Store, back up and recover data : Protect your data more cost-efficiently and at massive scale by transferring data over Internet to an offsite cloud storage system that is accessible from any location and any device.

Analyse data : Unify your data across teams, divisions and locations in the cloud. Then use cloud services, such as machine learning and artificial intelligence, to uncover insights for more informed decisions.

Stream audio and video : Connect with your audience anywhere, anytime, on any device with high-definition video and audio with global distribution.

Embed intelligence : Use intelligent models to help engage customers and provide valuable insights from the data captured.

Deliver software on demand : Also known as software as a service (SaaS), on-demand software lets you offer the latest software versions and updates around to customers at anytime they need, anywhere they are.

characteristics of cloud computing

Critical characteristics that must be present to be a cloud. This applies to both private clouds and public clouds.

On-Demand Self-Service The ability to provision services, such as a virtual machine, as needed without human interaction must be provided. Some organizations may add approval workflow for certain conditions.

Broad Network Access Access to services over many types of networks, mobile phones, desktops, and so on must be provided.

Resource Pooling Resources are organized in a multi tenant model with isolation provided via software. This removes the islands of resources that are common when each business group has its own resources. Resource islands lead to inefficiency in utilization.

Rapid Elasticity Rapid elasticity is the ability to scale rapidly outward and inward as demands on services change. The ability to achieve large-scale elasticity is tied to pooling all resources together to achieve a larger potential pool.

Measured Service Clouds provide resources based on defined quotas, but they also enable reporting based on usage and potentially even billing.

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content database in sharepoint

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content database in sharepoint

A content database in sharepoint is not the database server itself but container for all the content for a single web application.

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content database in sharepoint

You can have only one content database for one web application however, you can separate content for multiple websites into multiple content databases for a site collection. You can also use a single content database for multiple site collections, keeping in mind that the site collection or collections represent a single web app.

we can run the powershell command as below to get quick details however can get from “Central Admin -> Application Management”  under “View all Site Collections”.

Get-SPContentDatabase
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Isolation and sharing are expressed as the difference between one site collection using one database and numerous site collections sharing a database. The number of site collections using a database is also a scaling and performance issue. If you are deploying site collections with a high workload attached and greater expectancy for growth, make sure to use fewer site collections per database. You can also plan your content database strategy by adding databases to site collections as they grow or associate specific site collections only with specific content databases. The latter approach lets you isolate a database serving particular site collections from all the other databases and thus isolate the content it contains.

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boundaries and limits content databases

There can be 500 content databases per farm at max. With 200GB data per content database and 100TB of data per farm. 60 million items including documents and list items. Number of site collections per content database recommended to 5,000. However, up to 10,000 site collections are supported.2500 non-Personal site collections and 7500 Personal Sites or 10000 Personal Sites alone. find in details from Microsoft Doc Link.

content database for each site collection powershell

We can run below powershell command to know which content database your site collection attached to.

$site = Get-SPSite "http://win2016:37344/sites/SPmcse"
write-host $site.WebApplication.ContentDatabases

or

$url="http://win2016:37344/sites/SPmcse"
(Get-SPSite $url).ContentDatabase.name
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zones in sharepoint

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default zone in SharePoint

Zones are different logical paths expressed as URLs that allow access to the same web application. The default zones in sharepoint is 5. A web application can support up to five Default Zones. The available zone names are Default, Extranet, Intranet, Internet, and Custom. 

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One particular zone name can be used per web application. Zones using the same name across different web applications typically are available for the same user pool to control access for that group. For instance, your internal employees can use the Intranet zone to access all of the SharePoint sites configured to use that zone, giving that group the same sort of access to all relevant web applications. Each zone is expressed as a separate website in IIS. Zones isolate users based on authentication type, network zone, and policy. All zones have own Port number and Protocol http/https. Different authentication methods can be applied to login different zones like Forms authentication in Intranet and default Windows authentication. we can configure Blob and Distributed cache differently for different zones. When planning for zone deployment, particular attention must be paid to the Default zone, since access to this zone may be gained by anyone who is able to use a link to this zone, such as a URL sent via an automated administrative email. The Default one or any zone used for an outward-facing site must possess a high level of security.

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sharepoint templates

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sharepoint templates

This post describes the list of sharepoint templates and template id present. we can use the powershell command to get sharepoint templates list in sharepoint 2016.

Get-SPWebTemplate | Format-Table -wrap
NameTitle
GLOBAL#0 Global template
STS#0 Team Site
STS# 1 Blank Site
STS#2 Document Workspace
MPS#0 Basic Meeting Workspace
MPS#1 Blank Meeting Workspace
MPS#2 Decision Meeting Workspace
MPS#3 Social Meeting Workspace
MPS#4 Multipage Meeting Workspace
CENTRALADMIN#0 Central Admin Site
WIKI#0 Wiki Site
BLOG#0 Blog
SGS#0 Group Work Site
TENANTADMIN#0 Tenant Admin Site
APP#0 App Template
APPCATALOG#0 App Catalog Site
ACCSRV#0 Access Services Site
ACCSVC#0 Access Services Site Internal
ACCSVC#1 Access Services Site
BDR#0 Document Center
TBH#0 In-Place Hold Policy Center
DEV#0 Developer Site
EDISC#0 eDiscovery Center
EDISC#1 eDiscovery Case
OFFILE#0 (obsolete) Records Center
OFFILE#1 Records Center
OSRV#0 Shared Services Administration Site
PPSMASite#0 PerformancePoint
BICenterSite#0 Business Intelligence Center
PWA#0 Project Web App Site
PWS#0 Microsoft Project Site
POLICYCTR#0 Compliance Policy Center
SPS#0 SharePoint Portal Server Site
SPSPERS#0 SharePoint Portal Server Personal S
SPSPERS#2 Storage And Social SharePoint Porta
SPSPERS#3 Storage Only SharePoint Portal Serv
SPSPERS#4 Social Only SharePoint Portal Serve
SPSPERS#5 Empty SharePoint Portal Server Pers
SPSPERS# 6 Storage And Social SharePoint Porta
SPSPERS#7 Storage And Social SharePoint Porta
SPSPERS#8 Storage And Social SharePoint Porta
SPSPERS#9 Storage And Social SharePoint Porta
SPSPERS#10 Storage And Social SharePoint Porta
SPSMSITE#0 Personalization Site
SPSTOC#0 Contents area Template
SPSTOPIC#0 Topic area template
SPSNEWS#0 News Site
CMSPUBLISHING#0 Publishing Site
BLANKINTERNET#0 Publishing Site
BLANKINTERNET#1 Press Releases Site
BLANKINTERNET#2 Publishing Site with Workflow
SPSNHOME#0 News Site
SPSSITES#0 Site Directory
SPSCOMMU#0 Community area template
SPSREPORTCENTER#0 Report Center
SPSPORTAL#0 Collaboration Portal
SRCHCEN#0 Enterprise Search Center
PROFILES#0 Profiles
BLANKINTERNETCONTER#0Publishing Portal
SPSMSITEHOST#0 My Site Host
ENTERWIKI#0 Enterprise Wiki
PROJECTSITE#0 Project Site
PRODUCTCATALOG#0 Product Catalog
COMMUNITY#0 Community Site
COMMUNITYPORTAL#0 Community Portal
GROUP#0 Group
POINTPUBLISHINGHUB#0 PointPublishing Hub
POINTPUBLISHINGPERSONAL#0PointPublishing Personal
POINTPUBLISHINGTOPIC#0PointPublishing Topic
SRCHCENTERLITE#0 Basic Search Center
SRCHCENTERLITE#1 Basic Search Center
visprus# 0 Visio Process Repository
GLOBAL#0 Global template
STS#0 Team Site
STS#1 Blank Site
STS#2 Document Workspace
MPS#0 Basic Meeting Workspace
MPS#1 Blank Meeting Workspace
MPS#2 Decision Meeting Workspace
MPS#3 Social Meeting Workspace
MPS#4 Multipage Meeting Workspace
CENTRALADMIN#0 Central Admin Site
WIKI#0 Wiki Site
BLOG#0 Blog
SGS#0 Group Work Site
TENANTADMIN#0 Tenant Admin Site
ACCSRV#0 Access Services Site
ACCSRV#1 Assets Web Database
ACCSRV#3 Charitable Contributions Web Database
ACCSRV#4 Contacts Web Database
ACCSRV#6 Issues Web Database
ACCSRV#5 Projects Web Database
BDR#0 Document Center
OFFILE#0 (obsolete) Records Center
OFFILE#1 Records Center
OSRV#0 Shared Services Administration Site
PPSMASite#0 PerformancePoint
BICenterSite#0 Business Intelligence Center
PWA#0 Project Web App Site
PWS#0 Microsoft Project Site
SPS#0 SharePoint Portal Server Site
SPSPERS#0 SharePoint Portal Server Personal Site
SPSMSITE#0 Personalization Site
SPSTOC#0 Contents area Template
SPSTOPIC# 0 Topic area template
SPSNEWS#0 News Site
CMSPUBLISHING#0 Publishing Site
BLANKINTERNET#0 Publishing Site
BLANKINTERNET#1 Press Releases Site
BLANKINTERNET#2 Publishing Site with Workflow
SPSNHOME#0 News Site
SPSSITES#0 Site Directory
SPSCOMMU#0 Community area template
SPSREPORTCENTER#0 Report Center
SPSPORTAL#0 Collaboration Portal
SRCHCEN#0 Enterprise Search Center
PROFILES#0 Profiles
BLANKINTERNETCONTAINER#0Publishing Portal
SPSMSITEHOST#0 My Site Host
ENTERWIKI#0 Enterprise Wiki
SRCHCENTERLITE#0 Basic Search Center
SRCHCENTERLITE#1 Basic Search Center
SRCHCENTERFAST#0 FAST Search Center
visprus#0 Visio Process Repository
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sharepoint templates
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internal server error exception sharepoint search

internal server error exception sharepoint search

There is an internal server error exception sharepoint search.  When users perform a search in a Microsoft SharePoint environment, they receive the following error message:

Internal server error exception: Troubleshoot issues with Microsoft SharePoint Foundation
Additionally, the following critical exception may be written to the ULS log of the SharePoint Web front-end server:
Process: OWSTIMER.EXE (0x1CE0)
Product: SharePoint Foundation
Category: Topology
EvendID: 8031

Message:
An exception occurred while updating addresses for connected app {eaf6c00c-cc3f-460e-8bf2-ad9b991ea6ea_aa16845d-045a-46bc-bbc6-d701ff13950d}. The uri endpoint information may be stale. System.InvalidOperationException: The requested application could not be found at Microsoft.SharePoint.SPTopologyWebServiceApplicationProxy.ProcessCommonExceptions(Uri endpointAddress, String operationName, Exception ex, SPServiceLoadBalancerContext context) at Microsoft.SharePoint.SPTopologyWebServiceApplicationProxy.ExecuteOnChannel(String operationName, CodeBlock codeBlock) at Microsoft.SharePoint.SPTopologyWebServiceApplicationProxy.GetEndPoints(Guid serviceId) at Microsoft.SharePoint.SPConnectedServiceApplicationAddressesRefreshJob.Execute(Guid targetInstanceId) bf94139a-66f8-4aab-af31-406a5ebb6db9

Cause

This issue occurs when the Search service application proxy is associated with a web application but is not associated with any Search service applications in the farm.

Resolution

To allow users to search without receiving this error message, re-associate the web application with a valid Search service application proxy. A valid Search service application proxy will be associated with a Search service application in the Manage service applications option. To do this, follow these steps:

  • Open Central Administration.
  • Click Manage web applications.
  • Select the affected web application.
  • On the ribbon, click Service Connections.
  • Under Configure Service Application Associations, select the valid Search service application proxy check box.

you can find the Microsoft support link from here