private cloud definition

private cloud definition

A private cloud consists of computing resources used exclusively by one business or organization. The private cloud can be physically located at your organizations on-site data center or it can be hosted by a third-party service provider. But in a private cloud, the services and infrastructure are always maintained on a private network and the hardware and software are dedicated solely to your organization. In this way, a private cloud can make it easier for an organization to customize its resources to meet specific IT requirements. Private clouds are often used by government agencies, financial institutions, any other mid- to large-size organizations with business-critical operations seeking enhanced control over their environment.

advantages of private cloud

More flexibility—your organization can customize its cloud environment to meet specific business needs.

Improved security—resources are not shared with others, so higher levels of control and security are possible.

High scalability—private clouds still afford the scalability and efficiency of a public cloud.

It is also known as an internal or enterprise cloud, resides on company’s intranet or hosted data center where all of your data is protected behind a firewall.

disadvantages of private cloud

The main drawback people see with a private cloud is that all management, maintenance and updating of data centers is the responsibility of the company. Over time, it’s expected that your servers will need to be replaced.


public cloud in cloud computing


public cloud in cloud computing

public cloud in cloud computing are the most common way of deploying cloud computing. The cloud resources (like servers and storage) are owned and operated by a third-party cloud service provider and delivered over the Internet. Microsoft Azure is an example of a public cloud. With a public cloud, all hardware, software and other supporting infrastructure is owned and managed by the cloud provider. In a public cloud, you share the same hardware, storage and network devices with other organisations or cloud “tenants.” You access services and manage your account using a web browser. Public cloud deployments are frequently used to provide web-based email, online office applications, storage and testing and development environments.

Advantages of public cloud

Lower costs : no need to purchase hardware or software and you pay only for the service you use.

No maintenance : your service provider provides the maintenance.

Near-unlimited scalability : on-demand resources are available to meet your business needs.

High reliability : a vast network of servers ensures against failure. The public cloud represents services offered by an external party that can be accessed over the Internet. The services are not limited and can be purchased as you consume the service. This is a key difference from an on-premises infrastructure. With the public cloud, you only pay for the amount of service you consume when you use it. For example, I only pay for the amount of storage I am using at any moment in time; the charge does not include the potential amount of storage I may need in a few years’ time. I only pay for the virtual machines I need turned on right now; I can increase the number of virtual machines when I need them and only pay for those extra virtual machines while they are running.

Turn It Off : In Azure, virtual machines are billed on a per-minute basis. If I run an 8-vCPU virtual machine for 12 hours each month, then I only pay the cost for 12 hours of runtime. Note that it does not matter how busy the VM is. You pay the same price whether the vCPUs in the VM are running at 100 percent or 1 percent processor utilization. It’s important to shut down and deprovision from the Azure fabric any virtual machines that are not required to avoid paying for resources you don’t need. ( Deprovision just means the virtual machine no longer has resources reserved in the Azure fabric.) the virtual machine can be restarted when you need it again. At that point, resources are allocated in the fabric automatically; the VM will start as expected.

In addition to the essentially limitless capacity, this pay-as-you-go model is what sets the public cloud apart from on-premises solutions. Think back to organizations needing DR services. Using the public cloud ensures there are minimal costs for providing disaster recovery. During normal running, you only pay for the storage used for the replicated data and virtual environments. Only in the case of an actual disaster would you start the virtual machines in the public cloud. You stop paying for them when you can fail back to on-premises.

There are other types of charges associated with the public cloud. For example, Azure does not charge for ingress bandwidth (data sent into Azure—Microsoft is fully invested in letting you get as much data into Azure as possible), but there are charges for egress (outbound) data.

There are different tiers of storage, some of which are geo-replicated, so your data in Azure is stored at two data centers that may be hundreds of miles apart. The common theme is you pay only for what you use. If most organizations’ IT requirements were analyzed, you would find many instances where resource requirements for a particular service are not flat. In fact, they vary greatly at different times of the day, week, month, or year. There are systems that perform end-of-month batch processing. These are idle all month, and then consume huge amounts of resources for one day at the end of the month. There are companies that are idle for most of the year but that are very busy for two months.

Test and development : Test and development servers are less risky than production workloads and typically has a high amount of churn, means environments are created and deleted frequently. This translates to a lot of work for the IT teams unless the private cloud has been implemented.

Disaster Recovery : As discussed, for most companies a DR action should never be required. However, DR capability is required in that extremely rare event when it’s needed. By using the public cloud, the cost to implement DR is minimal, especially when compared to costs of a second data center.

International DMZ : Number of companies that would like to offer services globally. This can be challenging—having data centers in many countries is hugely expensive and can even be politically difficult. By using a public cloud that is geographically distributed, it’s easy to offer services around the world with minimal latencies for the end users.

Special Projects : Imagine a campaign or special analytics project that requires large amounts of infrastructure for a short period of time. The public cloud is perfect for this, especially when certain types of licensing (for example, SQL Server licensing) can be purchased as consumed and other resources are paid for only as required.

Get Out of the Data center Business : Many companies that just don’t want to maintain data centers anymore. These organizations will move as much as possible to the public cloud and maintain minimal on-premises infrastructure needed for certain services, such as domain controllers and file and print servers.

public cloud providers

The top public cloud providers companies are AWS, Azure, Google, IBM


web application in SharePoint

web application in SharePoint

A web application in SharePoint is any individual IIS website created to access and use SharePoint Server technologies and services. Each web application has its own domain name and use zones to contain and apply different access and policy rules for different sets of users. This brings benefits while managing large numbers of SharePoint users who need to access the same site but view and interact with different levels of content.

web application in SharePoint

Planning for web applications should center on the need to either share or isolate specific web content. For instance, different content can be presented for authenticated vs anonymous users or information can be contained so that internal employees, customers, and partners all access different types of web content. Policies for a web application let you set security and permissions at the level of the web application. You can set policies in Active Directory Domain Services users and user groups but not in SharePoint groups. Best practice suggests using these features to manage large numbers of users in user groups.

Once you create web application you will find one IIS website and one application pool under IIS Manager, as mentioned earlier web application is an iis website.


web application content database “WSS_Content” will be created under SQL database.

content database in sharepoint

Default resource throttling settings for web application is as below when you select “web application” and click on “resource throttling”

List View ThresholdSpecify the maximum number of items that a database operation can involve at one time. Operations that exceed this limit are prohibiteddefault 5000,limit is 10000
List View Threshold for Auditors and AdministratorsSpecify the maximum number of items that an object model database query can involve at one time for users to whom you grant sufficient permissions through Security Policy20000
List View Lookup ThresholdSpecify the maximum number of Lookup, Person/Group, or workflow status fields that a database query can involve at one time12
List Unique Permissions ThresholdSpecify the maximum number of unique permissions that a list can have at one time.50000
Change LogSpecify how long entries are kept in the change log.120

below screenshot is the default after creation of web application


Click on the ribbon, select “Authentication Providers” to see authentication provider. The option “Self-service Site Creation” allows “Users can create their own Site Collections”. Click on “Permission Policy” to see default permission policy level, also can “Add permission policy level”. Click on “User Policy” to apply permission policy for web application.


click on the link to see Software boundaries and limits for SharePoint Server 2016.


cloud computing services

cloud computing services

What is cloud computing ? Cloud computing or cloud computing services is the delivery of computing services (servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, intelligence) over Internet (“the cloud”) to offer faster innovation, flexible resources and economies of scale. You typically pay only for cloud services you use, helping lower your operating costs, run your infrastructure more efficiently and scale as your business needs change.

advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing

Lets discuss about what are advantages of cloud computing :

Cost : Eliminates Capital expense of buying hardware and software and setting up and running on-site data centers—the racks of servers, the round-the-clock electricity for power and cooling, the IT experts for managing the infrastructure.

Speed : Computing services are provided self service and on demand, so even vast amounts of computing resources can be provisioned in minutes, providing businesses a lot of flexibility and taking the pressure off capacity planning.

Global Scale : Another benefits  include ability to scale elastically means delivering right amount of IT resources (computing power, storage, bandwidth) during need and from the right geographic location.

Productivity : Eliminates many tasks like “racking and stacking”—hardware set up, software patching and other time-consuming IT management chores, which leads IT teams to spend time on achieving more important business goals.

Performance : Cloud computing services run on a worldwide network of secure data centers, which are regularly upgraded to the latest generation of fast and efficient computing hardware. This add several benefits over a single corporate data center, including reduced network latency for applications and greater economies of scale.

Security : Many cloud providers offer a broad set of policies, technologies and controls that strengthen your security posture overall, helping protect your data, apps and infrastructure from potential threats.

disadvantages of cloud computing includes as below

Vendor Lock-In : Vendor lock-in is a disadvantage of cloud computing. Differences between vendor platforms may create difficulties in migrating from one cloud platform to another, which could equate to additional costs and configuration complexities. Gaps or compromises made during a migration could also expose your data to additional security and privacy vulnerabilities.

Types of cloud computing

Not all clouds are the same and not one type of cloud computing is right for everyone. Several different models, types and services have evolved to help offer the right solution for your needs. There are 3 types of cloud computing deployments: public, private and hybrid. First, you need to determine the type of cloud deployment or cloud computing architecture, that your cloud services will be implemented on. There are three different ways to deploy cloud services: on a public cloud, private cloud or hybrid cloud.

services of cloud computing

services of cloud computing fall into four broad categories: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), serverless and software as a service (SaaS). We can say these as cloud computing stack because they build on top of one another.

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) : The most basic category of cloud computing services. With IaaS, you rent IT infrastructure—servers and virtual machines (VMs), storage, networks, operating systems—from a cloud provider on a pay-as-you-go basis. To learn more, see What is IaaS?

Platform as a service (PaaS) : Platform as a service refers to cloud computing services that supply an on-demand environment for developing, testing, delivering and managing software applications. PaaS is designed to make it easier for developers to quickly create web or mobile apps, without worrying about setting up or managing the underlying infrastructure of servers, storage, network and databases needed for development. To learn more, see What is PaaS?

Serverless computing : Overlapping with PaaS, serverless computing focuses on building app functionality without spending time continually managing the servers and infrastructure required to do so. The cloud provider handles the setup, capacity planning and server management for you. Serverless architectures are highly scalable and event-driven, only using resources when a specific function or trigger occurs.

Software as a service (SaaS) : Software as a service is a method for delivering software applications over the Internet, on demand and typically on a subscription basis. With SaaS, cloud providers host and manage the software application and underlying infrastructure and handle any maintenance, like software upgrades and security patching. Users connect to the application over the Internet, usually with a web browser on their phone, tablet or PC. To learn more, see What is SaaS?

How cloud computing works

While cloud computing services all work a little differently, many provide a friendly, browser-based dashboard that makes it easier for IT professionals and developers to order resources and manage their accounts. Some cloud computing services are also designed to work with REST APIs and a command-line interface, giving developers multiple options.

use of cloud computing in business

we use an online service to send email, edit documents, watch movies or TV, listen to music, play games or store pictures and other files and cloud computing is used behind the scenes.

below are examples of what is possible today with cloud services from a cloud provider.

Create new apps and services : Quickly build, deploy and scale applications (web, mobile and API) on any platform. Access resources you need to help meet performance, security and compliance requirements.

Test and build applications : Reduce application development cost and time by using cloud infrastructures that can easily be scaled up or down.

Store, back up and recover data : Protect your data more cost-efficiently and at massive scale by transferring data over Internet to an offsite cloud storage system that is accessible from any location and any device.

Analyse data : Unify your data across teams, divisions and locations in the cloud. Then use cloud services, such as machine learning and artificial intelligence, to uncover insights for more informed decisions.

Stream audio and video : Connect with your audience anywhere, anytime, on any device with high-definition video and audio with global distribution.

Embed intelligence : Use intelligent models to help engage customers and provide valuable insights from the data captured.

Deliver software on demand : Also known as software as a service (SaaS), on-demand software lets you offer the latest software versions and updates around to customers at anytime they need, anywhere they are.

characteristics of cloud computing

Critical characteristics that must be present to be a cloud. This applies to both private clouds and public clouds.

On-Demand Self-Service The ability to provision services, such as a virtual machine, as needed without human interaction must be provided. Some organizations may add approval workflow for certain conditions.

Broad Network Access Access to services over many types of networks, mobile phones, desktops, and so on must be provided.

Resource Pooling Resources are organized in a multi tenant model with isolation provided via software. This removes the islands of resources that are common when each business group has its own resources. Resource islands lead to inefficiency in utilization.

Rapid Elasticity Rapid elasticity is the ability to scale rapidly outward and inward as demands on services change. The ability to achieve large-scale elasticity is tied to pooling all resources together to achieve a larger potential pool.

Measured Service Clouds provide resources based on defined quotas, but they also enable reporting based on usage and potentially even billing.


content database in sharepoint

content database in sharepoint

A content database in sharepoint is not the database server itself but container for all the content for a single web application.

content database in sharepoint

You can have only one content database for one web application however, you can separate content for multiple websites into multiple content databases for a site collection. You can also use a single content database for multiple site collections, keeping in mind that the site collection or collections represent a single web app.

we can run the powershell command as below to get quick details however can get from “Central Admin -> Application Management”  under “View all Site Collections”.


Isolation and sharing are expressed as the difference between one site collection using one database and numerous site collections sharing a database. The number of site collections using a database is also a scaling and performance issue. If you are deploying site collections with a high workload attached and greater expectancy for growth, make sure to use fewer site collections per database. You can also plan your content database strategy by adding databases to site collections as they grow or associate specific site collections only with specific content databases. The latter approach lets you isolate a database serving particular site collections from all the other databases and thus isolate the content it contains.

boundaries and limits content databases

There can be 500 content databases per farm at max. With 200GB data per content database and 100TB of data per farm. 60 million items including documents and list items. Number of site collections per content database recommended to 5,000. However, up to 10,000 site collections are supported.2500 non-Personal site collections and 7500 Personal Sites or 10000 Personal Sites alone. find in details from Microsoft Doc Link.

content database for each site collection powershell

We can run below powershell command to know which content database your site collection attached to.

$site = Get-SPSite "http://win2016:37344/sites/SPmcse"
write-host $site.WebApplication.ContentDatabases


(Get-SPSite $url)

zones in sharepoint

default zone in SharePoint

Zones are different logical paths expressed as URLs that allow access to the same web application. The default zones in sharepoint is 5. A web application can support up to five Default Zones. The available zone names are Default, Extranet, Intranet, Internet, and Custom. 



One particular zone name can be used per web application. Zones using the same name across different web applications typically are available for the same user pool to control access for that group. For instance, your internal employees can use the Intranet zone to access all of the SharePoint sites configured to use that zone, giving that group the same sort of access to all relevant web applications. Each zone is expressed as a separate website in IIS. Zones isolate users based on authentication type, network zone, and policy. All zones have own Port number and Protocol http/https. Different authentication methods can be applied to login different zones like Forms authentication in Intranet and default Windows authentication. we can configure Blob and Distributed cache differently for different zones. When planning for zone deployment, particular attention must be paid to the Default zone, since access to this zone may be gained by anyone who is able to use a link to this zone, such as a URL sent via an automated administrative email. The Default one or any zone used for an outward-facing site must possess a high level of security.