web application in SharePoint
A web application in SharePoint is any individual IIS website created to access and use SharePoint Server technologies and services. Each web application has its own domain name and use zones to contain and apply different access and policy rules for different sets of users. This brings benefits while managing large numbers of SharePoint users who need to access the same site but view and interact with different levels of content.
Planning for web applications should center on the need to either share or isolate specific web content. For instance, different content can be presented for authenticated vs anonymous users or information can be contained so that internal employees, customers, and partners all access different types of web content. Policies for a web application let you set security and permissions at the level of the web application. You can set policies in Active Directory Domain Services users and user groups but not in SharePoint groups. Best practice suggests using these features to manage large numbers of users in user groups.
Once you create web application you will find one IIS website and one application pool under IIS Manager, as mentioned earlier web application is an iis website.
web application content database “WSS_Content” will be created under SQL database.
Default resource throttling settings for web application is as below when you select “web application” and click on “resource throttling”
|List View Threshold||Specify the maximum number of items that a database operation can involve at one time. Operations that exceed this limit are prohibited||default 5000,limit is 10000|
|List View Threshold for Auditors and Administrators||Specify the maximum number of items that an object model database query can involve at one time for users to whom you grant sufficient permissions through Security Policy||20000|
|List View Lookup Threshold||Specify the maximum number of Lookup, Person/Group, or workflow status fields that a database query can involve at one time||12|
|List Unique Permissions Threshold||Specify the maximum number of unique permissions that a list can have at one time.||50000|
|Change Log||Specify how long entries are kept in the change log.||120|
below screenshot is the default after creation of web application
Click on the ribbon, select “Authentication Providers” to see authentication provider. The option “Self-service Site Creation” allows “Users can create their own Site Collections”. Click on “Permission Policy” to see default permission policy level, also can “Add permission policy level”. Click on “User Policy” to apply permission policy for web application.
click on the link to see Software boundaries and limits for SharePoint Server 2016.