HTTP 403 Forbidden error when try browse to a SharePoint web app

Received the following error when browse to a SharePoint web app

The website declined to show this webpage
HTTP 403
Most likely causes:
This website requires you to log in.

http-403

if we create a copy of the web.config file, rename the web.config file, refresh the home page, we receive an "HTTP 404 – Page Not Found" error.

Rename the web.config file back and refresh the page. The site is browse able for a while before failing after some time, We see the following error in Failed Request Tracing

filed-request-tracing

A procmon trace captured while accessing the web app from the server showed the following:

w3wp.exe 4180 CreateFile

C:\inetpub\wwwroot\wss\VirtualDirectories\Web80.Contoso.com80\bin ACCESS DENIED Desired Access: Read Data/List Directory, Synchronize
Disposition: Open
Options: Directory, Synchronous IO Non-Alert
Attributes: n/a
ShareMode: Read, Write, Delete
AllocationSize: n/a
Impersonating: NT AUTHORITY\IUSR

tcs-view

This issue usually occurs when a request from an authenticated user without local admin rights results in a failed read of the /BIN directory by the impersonating w3wp.exe (IIS worker process for ASP.NET) process.

This behavior is typically associated with lack of permissions to the temporary folder /BIN where ASP.Net assemblies are Just In Time (JIT) compiled.

Resolution

The solution is to ensure that the Authenticated Users or \Users group (which usually contains DOMAIN\Users group) has Read & Execute, List Folder Contents and Read permissions on the /BIN folder below

C:\inetpub\wwwroot\wss\VirtualDirectories\{Sitename80}.

Follow the steps below to grant the required permissions:

a. Open Windows Explorer and navigate to the /bin directory of your web application
b. Right-click on the folder and click on Properties
c. Go to Security tab and click on Edit
d. Click on Add and add the local server group Authenticated Users or \Users (this usually contains DOMAIN\Users group).
e. Select the Read & Execute, List Folder Contents and Read permissions (if you are planning to add Everyone to the /bin folder, grant Read permissions only)
f. Click OK to apply the new settings
g. Refresh the page and we should be able to browse to the site.

More Information

If an administrator accesses the site/feature that caused the error, the subsequent requests from non-administrators would succeed. This behavior is typically associated with lack of permissions to the temporary folder where ASP.Net assemblies are Just In Time compiled.

The freb trace shows a 403.0 for ManagedPipelineHandler

It seems to go through quite a few ASPNet events – but happens during the ASPNetPageRender – it goes to the ASPNetPageRender Enter, then ASPNetHTTPHandler Leave.Only then does it get a 403.0 which is not an official RFC error. The first sub-status for 403 is 403.0.

Application pool in Classic or Integrated mode

Application Pool in Classic Mode – In this case, we can configure a Wildcard mapping for ASPNET_ISAPI.dll at the website level. That would propagate to child virtual directories. That should not need any further modifications at the virtual directory level.

Application Pool in Integrated Mode – In this case, all relevant virtual directories would need individual modifications. They need to be set for specific handler.

 

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Accounts used to install and configure SharePoint 2013

Account Purpose Requirements
SQL Server service account The SQL Server service account is used to run SQL Server. It is the service account for the following SQL Server services:  MSSQLSERVER  SQLSERVERAGENT   If you do not use the default SQL Server instance, in the Windows Services console, these services will be shown as the following:  MSSQL  SQLAgent Use either a Local System account or a domain user account. If you plan to back up to or restore from an external resource, permissions to the external resource must be granted to the appropriate account. If you use a domain user account for the SQL Server service account, grant permissions to that domain user account. However, if you use the Network Service or the Local System account, grant permissions to the external resource to the machine account (). The instance name is arbitrary and was created when SQL Server was installed.
Setup user account The Setup user account is used to run the following:  Setup  SharePoint Products Configuration Wizard  Domain user account.  Member of the Administrators group on each server on which Setup is run.  SQL Server login on the computer that runs SQL Server.  Member of the following SQL Server roles:  securityadmin fixed server role  dbcreator fixed server role   If you run Windows PowerShell cmdlets that affect a database, this account must be a member of the db_ownerfixed database role for the database.
Server farm account or database access account The server farm account is used to perform the following tasks:  Configure and manage the server farm.  Act as the application pool identity for the SharePoint Central Administration Web site.  Run the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Workflow Timer Service.  Domain user account.   Additional permissions are automatically granted for the server farm account on Web servers and application servers that are joined to a server farm. The server farm account is automatically added as a SQL Server login on the computer that runs SQL Server. The account is added to the following SQL Server security roles:  dbcreator fixed server role  securityadmin fixed server role  db_owner fixed database role for all SharePoint databases in the server farm